I. FIELD OF THEORETICAL PHYSICS

**101. STATISTICAL PHYSICS II (C-4)**

Applications of statistical mechanics. Photon gas. Insulating and conductive solids. Atomic and molecular gases. Equilibrium of chemical interactions. Equilibrium of phases and phase transitions of first and second kind. The role of interactions. Critical Exponents. Applications in astrophysics. (3,1,0)

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**103. ELEMENTARY PARTICLES (B-5)**

Introduction. Basic concepts and experimental methods. Symmetries and conservation laws. Weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions. Introduction to gauge theories. Unified theories. Astroparticle physics. (3,1,0)

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**104. INTRODUCTION TO FIELD THEORY (B-5)**

Dirac equations. Klein-Gordon equations. Quantization of electromagnetic radiation. Simple applications of relativistic field theory. (3,1,0) __51__, __61__

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**105. COSMOLOGY (B-5)**

Introduction to the standard cosmological model. Basic assumptions (homogeneity, isotropy). General relativity, perfect fluid), Robertson-Walker metric, perfect fluid distribution, Einstein and Friedmann equations. Flat and curved cosmological models, cosmological constant. Cosmological observational data: redshift, Hubble expansion, age of universe, dark matter, nucleosynthesis. Physics of the primordial Universe, background microwave radiation. Problems in the big-bang theory: the cosmological constant, flatness and horizon problems, dark matter, baryogenesis, primordial, perturbations. Inflating universe: solution of basic problems. Inflation models. Evolution of primordial perturbations: structure formation in the universe. (4,0,0)

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**106. GRAVITY AND GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY (C-4)**

Introduction to differential geometry and Riemann geometry. Fundamental concepts of general relativity and Einstein equations. Elementary solutions, Newtonian limit and classical tests of the theory. Introduction to geometry and physical interpretation of black holes. Schwarzschild formula. Introduction to Robertson-Walker cosmological models (4,0,0) __33__, __62__

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**107. GROUP THEORY (C-4)**

Elements of abstract groups of finite rank. Symmetry transformation groups. Conjugate classes. The symmetric group. Representations. Irreducible representations. Characters. Schur lemmas. Reduction of respresentations. Wigner's theorem. Continuous groups and their representations. Lie groups and algebras. The O(2), O(3), SU(2), SU(n), O(n), Sp(n) groups. Casimir operators. Applications. (3,1,0) __12__, __34__

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**108. DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY (C-4)**

Curvature and torsion. Theory of curves. First and second fundamental form. Theory of surfaces. Tensor calculus. Internal geometry. (3,1,0)

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**109. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN PHYSICS (C-4)**

Root determination of algebraic equations. Calculation of determinants. Matrix diagonalization. Numerical integration. Interposition methods. Monte-Carlo integration. Solution of first and second order differential equations. Schroedinger-type differential equations. Solution of integral equations in physics. Minimization methods. Simulation methods (Monte-Carlo, molecular dynamics). (2,0,2)

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**110. QUANTUM THEORY OF INFORMATION (C-4)**

Basic Quantum Physics. Qubit (quantum + bit) – Quantum interference. Entanglement – Quantum teleportation. Quantum computers – quantum algorithms. Quantum phenomena in complex systems. Applications. (3,1,0)

**111. PLASMA PHYSICS (B-5)**

Introductory concepts. Single particle motion. Elements of Kinetic theory. Plasma as a fluid. Wave phenomena, diffusion and conductivity. Equilibrium and stability. Non-linear phenomena. Introduction to controlled fusion. (3,1,0) __31__, __62__

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**112. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICISTS (C-4)**

Finite linear vector spaces. Infinite linear vector spaces. Curved coordinate systems. Integral transformations. Conformal transformations. Distributions theory. Differential equations and classical functions. The Sturm-Liouville problem. Solution of differential equations through the Green method. Integral equations. (2,1,1)

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**113. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS BY COMPUTERS (C-4)**

Introduction: historical facts, symbolic calculations and relevant software. Basic concepts: Simple algebraic and numerical calculations, functions, derivatives, integrals and roots of equations. Graphical representations: graphical representations of functions in two and three dimensions, graphical representations of data, graphical representation of vector fields, animation. Complex problems: Linear Algebra, Eigenvalues, Eigenfunctions, Series, Differential equations, Numerical calculations. Calculational packages. Applications in Mathematics and Physics. (1,0,3)

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II. FIELD OF EXPERIMENTAL AND APPLIED PHYSICS

**201. ATOMIC PHYSICS (B-5)**

Elements of Quantum Mechanics. One electron atomic systems. Interaction of one electron atomic systems with radiation, transitions, dipole approximation, selection rules, atomic spectra, lifetimes, spectral distributions. Fine and Hyperfine structure. One electron atoms in external fields, Zeeman and Stark effects. Two electron atomic systems, wavefunctions, notation, excited states. Many electron atomic systems, Central Field Approximation, Thomas-Fermi model, Hartree-Fock method, LS coupling, Hund rules, Periodic Table, Alkali spectra, X-ray spectra. Special Topics of Atomic Physics, Photoionization, Rabi oscillations, interaction with strong laser fields. (3,1,0)

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**202. MOLECULAR PHYSICS (B-5)**

General attributes of molecules, shape, size, molecular bond, dipole moment, polarization. Elements of molecular symmetry, Point group theory. Quantum description of molecular systems, Born-Oppenheimer approximation, electronic states, Molecular orbits. Motion of nuclei, oscillatory and rotational states, molecular system energy, Morse potential, Rotation, Transitions, Selection rules, Rotational spectra, Intensity of spectral lines, Molecular vibration, Transitions, Selection rules, Vibrational spectra, Interaction between vibrational and rotational states, Raman spectroscopy. Electronic transitions, Franck-Condon coefficients. Radiative decay (fluorescence, phosphorescence), Ionization, Molecular break-up. Multi-photon resonant and non-resonant excitation, multi-photon ionization of molecules (3,1,0)

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**203. NUCLEAR PHYSICS I (B-5)**

Properties of nuclei (charge distribution, mass, angular momentum, parity, isotopic spin, electromagnetic torques). Instability of nuclei. Alpha-beta-gamma decay. Nuclear potential. (3,1,0)

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**204. NUCLEAR PHYSICS II (C-4)**

Nuclear models (collective motion, independent motion of nuclides). Nuclear reactions (elastic, inelastic scattering, direct reactions, complex nucleus reactions). (3,1,0)

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**205. SOLID STATE PHYSICS II (B-5)**

Semiconductors. P-n junctions and Field Effect Transistor (FET/MOSFET). Organic and inorganic photovoltaic. Electric and dielectric properties of solids. Energy storage (ion-lithium batteries, supercapacitors). Transfer of electromagnetic radiation in solids. Photon and phonon crystals. Left-handed materials. Surface plasmons. Magnetic materials and their properties. Ferromagnetic materials (Curie temperature, organic and inorganic ferroelectric materials, ferroelectric capacitors-junctions-transistors, applications to memory devices). Piezoelectric materials. Thermoelectric materials (thermoelectric power, quantum confinement and effective mass). Quantum dots ((quantum confinement and its role in nanotechnology, density of states and energy gap, applications-emphasis on light emission, photovoltaic, hybrid photvoltaic). Physics of carbon and graphene compounds. Physics of liquid crystals. (3,1,0) __72__

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**206. SEMICONDUCTORS PHYSICS (C-4)**

Elements of physics and structure of semiconductors. Electric conductivity, diffusion and recoupling of free charges. p-n and p-i-n junctions and semiconductor–metal junctions. Direct and inverse polarization (DC, AC operation). Heterojuctions and quantum spatial structures (quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots). Crystal diodes. (3,1,0)

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**207. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS IN PHYSICS (C-4)**

Experimental Methods, Organology and purposes of Atomic and Molecular Physics, High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics. Vacuum Technique. Low and high temperatures. Thermometry. Thin film technology. Techniques for studying the structural, electron and magnetic properties of solids and surfaces: diffraction of X-rays, electrons and neutrons, magnetic measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, work function measurements, thermal detachment spectroscopy, and STEM, STM and AFM scanning electron microscopy. (3,1,0)

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**209. LABORATORY COURSES IN MODERN PHYSICS (C-6)**

The Franck-Hertz experiment for the verification of the atom’s quantum nature. Emission and absorption spectroscopy. Photoelectric phenomenon. Calibration and use of a spectrometer to characterize a Hg light source. Study of the photoelectric phenomenon, calculation of the Plank constant. Michelson Interferometer. Light beam interference, measurement of air refractive index, measurement of light source coherence. Holography. Construction of reflection, two beam, rainbow and color holograms. Holographic interferometry. X-ray diffraction of crystalline materials. Measurement and analysis of the X-ray diffraction pattern of polycrystalline materials. Reconstruction of the unit cell of the crystalline structure of the material.. X-ray generation and absorption of materials. Study of X-ray emission and absorption from different materials. Determination of the Plank constant. Thermal and electrical conductivity of metals. Measurement of the thermal and electrical conductivity of Al and Cu. Law of Wiedemann-Franz. Calculation of the Lorentz number. Semiconductor measurements. Measurement of the specific resistance of various semiconductors (Si, Ge). Measurement of the concentration and the carriers type in p-n contacts. p-n contact potential measurement. The Hall Effect in p- and n-Germanium. Measuring the concentration and mobility of carriers in p- and n-Germanium. Measure the Hall coefficient in p- and n-Germanium. Study of the transition from exogenous to endogenous conduction type by increasing the temperature at p- and n-Germanium. Optoelectronics. Measure the characteristic I-V for various LED diodes. Measurement of characteristic I / V with / without illumination for one or more photovoltaic Si cells. Study of the LED diode emission spectrum. Measuring the intensity of the light energy in relation to the current through an LED. Principles of digital telecommunication. Measurement of parameters and Gaussian beam with optical fiber. (Rayleigh parameter, ω_{0}). Optical fibers and sensors. Coupling Gaussian, (Gaussian) laser light beam into a fiber optic. Study and experimentation of fiber optic properties: reflection, bending loss and fiber couplers. Study and calibration of a sensor, bending as a weight sensor. Interferometer Mach-Zehnder as a temperature sensor in water. Spectrum gamma spectroscopy with NaI detector. Absorption of gamma rays. Measurement of the energy spectrum of radioactive sources ^{60}Co and ^{137}Cs. Calibration procedure and determination of the geometric performance of the NaI detector. Measurement of the linear absorption coefficient of lead. Positron-electron annihilation. Understand the ^{22}Na nuclear diagram. Familiarizing the student with coincidence measurements. Measurement of the ^{22}Na spectrum. Measurement and explanation of the angular distribution of the γ-ray coincidence events (511 keV) corresponding to the positron-electron annihilation. Cosmic Radiation - Lifetime of the Muon. Measuring the flow of cosmic muons in the laboratory. Proof of the phenomenon of time dilation. Measuring the angular distribution (cosθ)^{2}) of the cosmic muons. Use of Geiger-Muler and plastic scintillators. Measuring the lifetime of the muon. Calculation of the Fermi G_{F} coupling constant (weak interaction). (1,0,4) __23,32,35,42,44,53__

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**211. MATERIALS SCIENCE (B-5)**

Atomic and electronic structure of solids, atom and ion bonds. Basic crystal structures and configurations, amorphous materials, polycrystalline materials and monocrystals. Atomic packing. Imperfections and diffusion in solids. Mechanical properties of solids. Phase equilibrium diagrams. Electrical, thermal, magnetic and optical properties of solids. Metallic materials, ceramic materials and glasses. Thermoelectric materials. Carbon, nanostructured and hybrid materials. Polymeric materials (“polymeric “ and “plastic”, classes of polymers, chain modulation, start-end distance. (3,1,0)

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**212. STRUCTURAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS (C-4)**

Introduction. Interactions of radiation with matter. Basic theory of Elastic Scattering. Elastic scattering from single atoms. Crystal diffraction. Basic theory of electron diffraction. Secondary emission. Radiation production, detection and measurement. Applications of X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction in crystal solids. High and low energy electron diffraction in thin films. Elemental analysis through X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Electron spectroscopy in surface analysis. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and electron loss spectroscopy. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy in surface analysis. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). (3,1,0)

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**213. LASER PHYSICS (C-4)**

Introductory notes. Laser categories, Hazards and Protection. Propagation of electromegnetic waves is optical media, Gaussian beams, Passive optical cavities, Modes. Interaction of radiation with matter, Absorption, Stimulated emission, Spontaneous emission. Pumping processes. CW Lasers, population rate equations, Threshold conditions, Single mode operation. Pulsed lasers, Q-swtching, Mode-locking. Types of Lasers. (3,1,0)

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**214. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Ι (C-4)**

Solutions and concentration, mixing rules. Colligative properties: vapor pressure, boiling/melting point, osmosis/reverse osmosis. Thermochemistry: enthalpy change of reactions ΔH, calorimetry, energy value of fuel. Chemical equilibrium ΚC,P. Ionic equilibrium-pH, buffer solutions, neutralization reactions, solubility product. Electrochemical potentials of reactions ΔE-relation between ΔE, ΔG-Nernst’s equation. (3,1,0)

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**215. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY ΙΙ (C-4)**

Light and atoms: nature of light, electromagnetic spectrum, Planck’s law, de Broglie equation, atoms-isotopes, exotic atoms, Bohr’s atomic model. Atomic orbitals and electronic structure: rules of chemical structure, electronic structure and chemical potency, importance of atomic orbitals and spin in Chemistry. States of matter: Clausius-Clapeyron equation and kinetic theory of gases. Chemical thermodynamics: change of free energy ΔG in chemical reactions-thermodynamic criterion. Chemical kinetics: reaction rate, collision theory, activation energy. Arrhenius equation, integrated rate laws. Electrochemistry: introduction to electrochemical cells, electrolytic cells-products of electrolysis- Faraday’s law-industrial applications, galvanic cells-electrochemical potentials-batteries-cathodic protection. Theory of crystal structure, low-spin/high-spin electron configuration, d-d transitions (Laporte’s rule, spin-allowed/spin forbidden). Jahn-Teller distortion. Molecular orbitals: theory of molecular orbitals for diatomic molecules (homonuclear or heteronuclear) and simple chemical compounds (conjugates polyenes), predicting molecules and properties. Molecular geometries: Lewis structure, VSEPR theory, hybridization. Crystal configuration: simple, body-centred and face-centred and cubic structure-diamond structure, calculations of theoretical density (3,1,0).

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**217. APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS (C-4)**

Introductory concepts in Nuclear Physics. Interactions of radiation with matter. Nuclear radiation detectors. Nuclear energy. Physics and technology of nuclear reactors. Physics and applications of neutrons. Methods for trace analysis. Applications of radioisotopes in research and industry. Radio-dating methods. Radio-ecology. Dosimetry. Radiation shielding. Applications in geophysics. Applications in medicine: gamma camera, positron-electron tomography (PET), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). (3,1,0)

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**218. POLYMER SOLIDS (C-4)**

Introduction, plastics and polymers, classification of polymers, glass transition of polymers, polymer dynamics near the glass point, crystallization of solids, kinetics of crystallization, semi-crystal polymers dynamics, liquid-crystal polymers, chemical/physical structure and applications. (3,1,0) __41__ or __63__ or __71__

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**219. MEDICAL PHYSICS - RADIOPHYSICS (D-3)**

Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter focusing on medical applications. Dosimetry. Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Introduction to physics of medical imaging (Radiology, Nuclear Medicine). Introduction to physics of radiotherapy. Radioprotection. Classical mechanics applied to human walking. (3,0,1)

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**220. BIOPHYSICS (D-3)**

Thermodynamics of biological systems. X-ray diffraction. Spectroscopy techniques of biologic interest materials (IR, Raman, cyclic dichroism, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)). Biological results of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Microscopy techniques of biologic interest materials [optical microscopy, confocal microscopy, super-resolution microscopy) Quantitative image analysis in 3D. Molecular dynamics simulations. Optical and magnetic tweezers. Movement of microorganisms. (3,1,0)

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III. FIELD OF DIDACTICS IN PHYSICS

**301. HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES (D-4)**

Historiography of Science form antiquity to the present day. Social dimension of Science. Science and the problem of truth. Nature in ancient Greek philosophy. The dispute of Aristotelean Physics in Renaissance. Evolutions of ideas after the Renaissance. First scientific revolution-Galileo. Second scientific revolution- discovery of X-rays. Contemporary developments. Logical Empiricism and its criticism. The problem of the method. The progress of scientific theories. Relativism and scientific rationalism. (4,0,0)

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**304. DIDACTICS OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES (D-4)**

The nature of Physical Sciences and Learning. Procedures of the scientific method and methods of teaching Physics. Alternative student views and their impact on teaching. The constructivist model of learning. Teaching with experiments. The role of experiment in conceptual change. Pre-existing student ideas on the various concepts of Physics. Examples of constructive approach. (4,0,0)

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**305. CONCEPTUAL PHYSICS AND TEACHING EXPERIENCE IN PHYSICS (D-5)**

Physical Sciences. Scientific method. Theory-Observation. Concepts in Physics: Mechanics-Newton’s law-Momentum-Energy-Gravity-Matter. Properties of Matter: Solids, liquids, gases, plasma, temperature-expansion. Heat: transport, phase transitions, thermodynamics. Sound: Vibrations, waves. Sound: musical sound. Electromagnetics: electrostatics, electric current, magnetism, induction. Light: properties, color, reflection, refraction, light waves, emission-light propagation, quanta. Atomic Physics-Nuclear Physics-Elementary Particles Physics: the atom and quantum, nucleus and radioactive decay, nuclear fusion, nuclear fission, nuclear interactions, atomic structure, particle accelerators. Relativity: special theory of relativity, general theory of relativity. Students experimentation and practical work on teaching and microteaching with new technologies. Practical work on developing experiments for education (specialized experiment didactic), presentation of projects-experiments to groups of primary and secondary education students. (4,0,0)

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**306. INTRODUCTION TO PEDAGOGICS (D-4)**

Pedagogy and Education Science: Conceptual clarifications and epistemological progress. Discourse and pedagogical knowledge (Savoir). Pedagogical ideology and educational reality. The development and formation of Autocratic Methods of Teaching: historical overview-versions of autocratic method in education-Critical view of contemporary perspectives/practice of autocratic method. The New Education Movement and its effects in Modern Greek Education: education theory and practice in the classroom. (4,0,0)

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**307. DIDACTIC METHODOLOGY (D-4)**

Topics and themes of didactic methodology. Learning theories. Education theories. Teacher-student relations. The role of the teacher. Interplay of theory and practice in Education Science. Contemporary Education Science Theories. Education Science and postmodernism. Contemporary issues and the role of Education Science. Educational relationship and communication in the classroom. (4,0,0)

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**308. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE TEACHING OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES (D-4)**

Introduction: historical overview. Computers in the service of education. Use of computers. Categories of educational applications: computer-aided teaching/learning. Digital educational games. Use of simulations and multimedia in teaching of simple and advanced concepts. Software to create multimedia applications and presentations. Software for analytical calculations for physics problems. Internet in education. Diffusion of courses in the world-wide-web. Software of modern tele-education. E-learning software (teleconferences). (1,0,3)

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**309. EDUCATIONAL PHYCHOLOGY (D-4)**

Theory of learning: (i) Behavioural learning theory. Classical conditioning. Operant conditioning. (ii)Theory of purposive behaviourism, (iii) Social cognitive learning theory, (iv) Cognitive learning theories. Constructivism (atomic constructivism, socio-cultural constructivism). Self-referential learning theories.

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**310. EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY (D-4)**

Education and Social Inequalities: The Sociology as Science and the founders of the sociological reasoning. Sociology of Education: themes and research methodology. Education and equal opportunities. Education and social inequalities: interpretative approaches. School performance and social inequalities. Choice of studies and social inequalities. (4,0,0)

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IV. FIELD OF ENVIRONMENTAL, ATMOSPHERIC AND SPACE PHYSICS

**401. GENERAL METEOROLOGY (B-5)**

Branches of meteorology and climatology. Weather and climate. The Sun and its radiation. Thermodynamics and hydrostatics of the atmosphere. Precipitation. Atmospheric pressure. Planetary distribution of pressure. Winds, air masses and fronts. Depressions and anticyclones. Elements of weather analysis and prediction. Educational excursion. (3,1,0)

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**402. PHYSICS OF THE ATMOSPHERE (C-4)**

Structure, composition and thermodynamics of the atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure, density and composition of the atmosphere. Variable atmospheric gases. Temperature structure. Free atmosphere. Equation of State. Variation of pressure with height. Water in the atmosphere. The first Law of Thermodynamics for the atmosphere. Radiation. Orbital parameters. Earth's orbit, seasonal and daily effects. Sun-set, sun-rise and twilight. Definition of radiative flux, basics of radiation. Radiation balance at Earth's surface. Physics of clouds. Cloud formation, cloud sizes, fractal structure of clouds. Processes of cloud saturation. Clouds and fog, other types of fog. Precipitation and ice crystals, nucleation of liquid drops and ice crystals. Development and growth of drops and ice crystals by diffusion. Collision and collection of drops. Precipitable water. (3,0,1)

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**403. DYNAMICAL METEOROLOGY (C-4)**

Thermodynamics of dry and humid air. Hydrostatics and vertical equilibrium. Basic equations of motion and applications to special flow patterns. Law of conservation of mass and equation of continuity. Conservation of energy. Equations of boundary layer. Circulation and turbulence. Cyclogenesis. Simple formulae of motion of atmospheric waves. Vertical variation of location and strength of pressure systems. (3,1,0) __401__

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**404. FLUID MECHANICS (C-4)**

Basic principles of fluid mechanics. Statics of fluids. Kinematics of moving fluids. Equations of motion of moving fluids. Two and three dimensional flows. Flow of viscous fluids. Stress components of a real fluid. Equations of motion of a real fluid. Dimensional analysis. Non-dimensional parameters (Reynolds number, Froude number, Richardson number). Compressible flow. Thermodynamics of fluids. Elements of Magneto-hydrodynamics. Applications. (3,1,0)

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**405. ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS (B-5)**

Planet Earth and the origins of its environment. Formation of solid, liquid and gaseous elements. The terrestrial atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Physical principles of environmental problems. Natural forces. Air pollution. Atmospheric cycles of basic forms of waste. Chemical reactions of gaseous pollutants. Atmospheric ozone. Ozone layer hole. Size distributions of particles. Mechanisms of removal of atmospheric pollutants. Boundary layer. Mixing-length theory. Turbulent flow. Reynolds number. Air pollution and Meteorology. Models of transport, diffusion and deposition. Influence of temperature stratification on diffusion. Influence of meteorological parameters. Pollution drains. Acid rain. Influence of pollution on weather and climate. Influence of pollution on health, plant and animal environment. Radioactive pollution. Noise pollution. Physics and pollution of water (sea, lake, river). Diluted gases. Chemical cycles. Chemical reactions. Bacteriological water pollution. Chemical pollution. Energy and pollution. Environmental impact. Physics and soil pollution. (3,1,0)

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**406. PHYSICAL CLIMATOLOGY (C-4)**

Solar radiation. Distribution of solar radiation in the Earth-atmosphere system. Terrestrial radiation. Distribution of terrestrial radiation. Radiation balance. Boundary friction layer. The influence of turbulence on meteorological parameters. Heat dispersion in the soil. Hydrologic circle. Energy balance of Earth. Energy balance of atmosphere. Energy balance of soil-atmosphere system. Atmosphere and climate evolution and change. (3,1,0)

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**407. NATURAL ENERGY SOURCES, NATURAL RESOURCES AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT (C-4)**

Renewable and non-renewable natural energy resources. Solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, biomass, waterfall energy. Exploitation of energy sources and environmental impact. Natural resources (water, forests, fuel sources, etc). Ecosystems. Management, exploitation and disposal of natural resources. Environmental impact of the exploitation of the natural resources. Natural perils and natural environmental disasters. Viable development. Statistical and mathematical models for the study of natural sources and resources of energy. Applications. Non-renewable natural energy sources. Sources of conventional fuel (fossil, natural gas etc). Nuclear energy (fission, controlled thermonuclear fusion). Environmental impact. Problems and applications. Educational excursion. (4,0,0) __41__

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**408. INTRODUCTION TO ASTROPHYSICS (B-5)**

Mechanisms of emission and absorption of radiation. Radiative transfer. Stellar magnitudes and distances. Stellar spectra and classification, Hertzsprung–Russell diagram. Internal structure, formation and evolution of stars. Final stages of stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes. The Sun. The solar system. Variable and peculiar stars. Stellar groups and clusters. Interstellar matter. Our Galaxy. Other galaxies. Cosmology. (3,1,0)

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**409. SPACE WEATHER (C-4)**

Introduction to the Physics of the interplanetary plasma. Waves in plasmas. Magnetic reconnection. Shock waves. Solar activity. Solar wind. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections. The terrestrial magnetosphere and its dynamics. Aurora. Space weather and human activities. (3,1,0) __408__, __413__

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**410. GALAXIES AND COSMOLOGY (C-4)**

Distribution of stars in the Galaxy. Kinematics of the Galaxy. Morphology of the Galaxy: disk, bulge and halo. Indications of dark matter in the Galaxy. Structure and physical characteristics of other galaxies. Morphological classification of galaxies. Radiation in radio, infrared and X-rays. Dark matter searches. *S upermassive *black holes. Elements of galactic dynamics. The nature of spirals in galaxies. Evolution of galaxies. Interactions between galaxies. Active galaxies and quasars. Hubble's law and cosmological assumptions. Observations with cosmological significance. Evolutionary models of the Universe. Open issues: singularity and dark energy. (3,1,0)

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**411. OBSERVATIONAL ASTROPHYSICS (C-4)**

Introduction. The influence of Earth's atmosphere and its correction. Aperture theory. Collection of radiation and image formation. Telescopes. Radiation detectors. Spectroscopic analysis. Polarimetric measurements of radiation. Neutron and gravitational radiation detectors. Practical work. (3,1,0)

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**413. SOLAR PHYSICS (C-4)**

Solar observations. Diagnostics of solar plasmas. Interaction of solar plasmas with the magnetic field. One-dimensional models of the solar atmosphere. Solar wind. Oscillations and helioseismology. Fine structure of the solar atmosphere. Solar active regions. Solar activity: flares, Coronal Mass Ejections. Chromospheric and coronal heating. Influences of the Sun on the space environment. (3,1,0) __408__

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V. FIELD OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES

**502. DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (C-4)**

Number systems, Binary arithmetic – Basic operations. Bool Algebra – Logic Circuits, Digital signals – creation principles. Basic gates (AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, XNOR), conversions – combinations. Characteristics – specifications of the CMOS, TTl, ECL PECL gates. Assembler (serial parallel), Flip Flop, Shift Register, Counters, Multiplexer-Demultiplexer, Serial Interfaces. Timing-clock circuits. Representation circuits, Generators of pulse-series, Semiconductor memories and products (RAM, ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM). Modern high-integration circuits (PAL, PLD, CPLD, etc). ADC, DAC. Introduction to languages describing digital circuits (VHDL). Examples of its use in the description – execution of logical processes. (2,1,2)

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**504. INTRODUCTION TO TELECOMMUNICATIONS (C-4)**

Representation of digital signals in time and frequency, pulse spectra. Network communications, network hierarchy. Coupling elements (channel, signal, noise, interpolation, distortion, etc.). Data broadcast, channel capacitance, data broadcasting in basic zone, interpolation, filtering, Nyquist response. Eye diagram, cosine filters, Nyquist filters, adaptive filters. Gain-phase distortion, interpolation-noise. Two-level digital modulations (ASK, FSK, PSK) and multiple levels (ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK, DQPSK, OPQSK, QAM, APK). Encoding of source, channel, block, etc. Multi-users modulation techniques (FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, FH-CDMA, DS-CDMA, etc.), examples, applications. (2,0,2)

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**506. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES (C-4)**

Introduction to C++ programming language. Input-output commands. Flow commands. Objects, methods, classes, inheritance. Introduction to object-oriented programming (ROOT). Histograms, graphics, data fitting. (2,0,2)

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**507. INTERNET APPLICATIONS (C-4)**

Historical background, basics in internet and world-wide-web (www) function and usage. Introduction to HTML programming language for designing web pages (text, graphics, tables, etc.). Web page designing using CSS. Designing dynamic web pages (Java applets, Javascript, PHP). (1,0,3)

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**508. MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS (C-4)**

Magnetism of electrons, atomic-ionic magnetic moments and magnetization, Hund’s rules. Diamagnetism, paramagnetism Brillouin and Langevin theories. Crystal field. Mean field theory, band magnetism, Stoner criterion. Direct exchange, superexchange, double exchange and RKKY interactions. Magnetic ordering: ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism and special magnetic ordering. Magnetic anisotropy. Strong and week ferromagnetic metallic materials. Hard and soft magnetic materials. Magnetic domains, single domain particles, Bloch and Néel walls, hysteresis and magnetization inversion mechanisms, Stoner-Wohlfarth model. Magnetization relaxation and superparamagnetism. Magnetic nanomaterials and nanoscale magnetism. Magnetoresistance and spintronics, half-metallic magnetic materials. Modern magnetic materials and their applications. Characteristics and properties of superconducting materials and basic theories for their interpretation. (3,0,1)

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**509. COMPUTER MEASUREMENTS AND AUTOMATICS (C-4)**

Detectors and sensors. Analog and digital systems. Analog to digital signal conversion. Analog and digital measuring instruments. Computer architecture. Platforms for application development. Data acquisition systems. Introduction to LabVIEW and applications. Acquisition and processes of images. (2,0,2)

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**510. MODERN PROGRAMMABLE ELECTRONICS (C-4)**

Theory and applications of programmable integrated circuits (FPGA) and microcontrollers (μC). Introduction to Electronic Design Automation (EDA) and Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and basic input/output applications. Measurements with modern programmable electronic circuits, photodiodes/switches connections, visualization applications, serial/parallel data transfer, coding/decoding, multiplexing, memory circuits, registers, counters, timing issues, arithmetic logic unit, theory and operation of interrupts, branch commands, subroutines, stack and pointers. (1,0,3)

*Additional Information-Course Outline*

COURSES WHICH BELONG TO ALL FIELDS OF STUDIES

**701. DIPLOMA THESIS (E-10)**

The course is annual and it is offered to the students of the 7^{th} and 8^{th} semester. The students interested in the course should be addressed to the faculty member relevant to the topic of the thesis.

*Additional Information-Course Outline*

**702. WORK PLACEMENT (F-3)**

The course is offered only to the students of the 6^{th}, 7^{th} and 8^{th} semester. The students interested in the course should be addressed to the faculty member relevant to the topic of the work placement.

*Additional Information-Course Outline*

Courses offered to other Departments

**Department of Mathematics**

- Meteorology (2,1,0) Lolis C.
- Astronomy (2,1,0) Nindos A. (8
^{th}semester)

**Department of Chemistry**

- Physics (3,1,0) Deligiannakis I. (1
^{st}semester)

**Department of Computer Science**

- General Physics I (4,1,0) Tselepi M. (1
^{st}semester)

**Department of Biological Applications and Technologies **

- General Physics (3,2,0) Benis E. (1
^{st}semester)

**Department of Primary Education **

6. Topics of Environmental and Space Sciences (3,0,0) Bartzokas A., Patsourakos S.

(6^{th} semester)

**Department of Materials Science and Engineering**

- Materials and Environment (3,0,0), Deligiannakis I. (5
^{th}semester)

**Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Postgraduate Studies “Advanced Materials”**

- Advanced Materials Characterization Techniques (3,0,1) Douvalis A., Deligiannakis I., (1
^{st}semester) - Materials Processes – Materials in the micro- and nano- scale (3,0,0) Bourlinos A.

(1^{st} semester)

**Interdepartmental (Dept. of Chemistry - Dept. Material Science and Engineering) Postgraduate Studies in “Chemistry and Material Science”**

- Materials Characterization Techniques – Analytical Methods (2,0,1) Deligiannakis I. (1
^{st}semester) - Materials Structure - Solid-state Physics and Chemistry (3,0,0) Douvalis A.

(1^{st} semester)

- Advanced Materials - Micro- and nano-scale Materials Technology (3,0,0) Bourlinos A.

(1^{st} semester)

13. Material Properties- Tutorial (2,0,3), Deligiannakis I. (2^{nd} semester)